Black and white photograph of German revolutionary, economist, sociologist, and historian Karl Marx.

Karl Marx

(1818 - 1883)

Born in the Rhineland in 1818, Marx studied in Bonn and Berlin. Forced into political exile after the 1848 publication of the Manifesto of the Communist Party, he spent the remainder of his life in London. “It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence,” Marx wrote in 1859, “but their social existence that determines their consciousness.”

All Writing

There is only one antidote to mental suffering and that is physical pain.

—Karl Marx, 1860

Voices In Time

1843 | Kreuznach

Opium Den

Karl Marx immanentizes the eschaton.More

Voices In Time

1848 | London

Common Property

Marx and Engels on the cosmopolitanism of the bourgeoisie.More

Miscellany

As a London-based correspondent for Horace Greeley’s New York Tribune, Karl Marx wrote about Abraham Lincoln’s issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation, “Up to now we have witnessed only the first act of the Civil War—the constitutional waging of war. The second act, the revolutionary waging of war, is at hand.”

Miscellany

In 1863, four years before publishing the first volume of Das Kapital, Karl Marx wrote to Friedrich Engels that apart from “the discoveries of gunpowder, the compass, and the printing press—these necessary preconditions of bourgeois development—the two material bases on which the preparations for machine industry were organized within manufacture...were the clock and the mill.” He elaborated: “The clock is the first automatic machine applied to practical purposes, and the whole theory of production of regular motion was developed on it.”

We should not say that one man’s hour is worth another man’s hour, but rather that one man during an hour is worth just as much as another man during an hour. Time is everything, man is nothing; he is, at most, time’s carcass.

—Karl Marx, 1847

Issues Contributed