Mine Rescue, by Fletcher Martin, 1939. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC.


Volume VIII, Number 3 | summer 2015


Money Trails

Where the UN, the World Bank, and eleven nations send foreign aid.



Leo Tolstoy, who opened a school for peasant children on his estate and organized relief efforts during famines in 1873 and 1891, later lost his charitable spirit. In 1903, in response to a visitor describing the poor at Moscow’s Khitrov market eating rotten eggs, fish, and fruit, Tolstoy declared that drunkenness and debauchery were responsible for such conditions, not misfortune. “They always have been bosyaki,” said Tolstoy about the beggars there, “and they always will be. They drink, are lazy, and that is all there is to it.” 

Do not ask me to be kind; just ask me to act as though I were.

—Jules Renard, 1898


The World in Time

David S. Brown

Lewis H. Lapham speaks with the author of The Last American Aristocrat: The Brilliant Life and Improbable Education of Henry Adams. More