John Stuart Mill
(1806 - 1873)
Born in 1806 to Scottish historian, philosopher, and economist James Mill, John Stuart Mill was given a rigorous and extensive education by his father, learning Greek by age three and algebra by age eight. In 1823, at age seventeen, he began working for the British East India Company, where he served in a variety of capacities until 1858, when the British government nationalized the company. A prolific philosopher, economist, and political theorist, Mill remarked to his stepdaughter shortly before his death in 1873, “You know that I have done my work.” He published Principles of Political Economy in 1848, On Liberty in 1859, and Utilitarianism in 1861. He won a local seat to Parliament in 1865, refusing to canvas for his cause or to pander to the local business. While there, he supported, among other causes, capital punishment, women’s rights, and Irish land reform.