Portrait of Swiss-born philosopher, writer, and political theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

(1712 - 1778)

Black and white photograph of Ryszard Kapuściński holding a book.

Ryszard Kapuściński

(1932 - 2007)

Black and white photograph of Friedrich Nietzsche with a huge mustache.

Friedrich Nietzsche

(1844 - 1900)

Photograph of English socialite and Nazi sympathizer Unity Mitford.

Unity Mitford

(1914 - 1948)

Photograph of American writer Ralph Ellison.

Ralph Ellison

(1914 - 1994)

Drawing of Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard.

Søren Kierkegaard

(1813 - 1855)

Black and white photograph of Mao Zedong with raised arm.

Mao Zedong

(1893 - 1976)

Photograph of Russian poet and critic Osip Mandelstam.

Osip Mandelstam

(1891 - 1938)

Photograph of American novelist and writer Flannery O’Connor.

Flannery O’Connor

(1925 - 1964)

Black and white photograph of a young Mark Twain with dark hair.

Mark Twain

(1835 - 1910)

Photograph of historian Anthony Grafton.

Anthony Grafton

Painted portrait of Florentine statesman and philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli.

Niccolò Machiavelli

(1469 - 1527)

Photograph of New York Times East Africa Bureau Chief Jeffrey Gettleman.

Jeffrey Gettleman

Photograph of Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya.

Anna Politkovskaya

(1958 - 2006)

Sculpture bust of Greek historian Herodotus.

Herodotus

(c. 484 BC - c. 425 BC)

Photograph of American politician Shirley Chisholm.

Shirley Chisholm

(1924 - 2005)

Painted portrait of second President of the United States John Adams.

John Adams

(1735 - 1826)

Statue of the Persian poet Ferdowsi.

Ferdowsi

(c. 935 - c. 1020)

Depiction of Chinese philosopher Mozi.

Mozi

(c. 470 BC - c. 391 BC)

Photograph of professor and editor Robert Boyers.

Robert Boyers

Photograph of American journalist and novelist George Packer.

George Packer

Painted portrait of British statesman and political thinker Edmund Burke.

Edmund Burke

(1729 - 1797)

Portrait of American general and first president George Washington.

George Washington

(1732 - 1799)

Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau

(1817 - 1862)

Photograph of author and historian H.W. Brands.

H.W. Brands

Depiction of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.

Ferdinand II & Isabella I

(1479 - 1504)

Black and white photograph of French novelist, essayist, and playwright Albert Camus.

Albert Camus

(1913 - 1960)

Photograph of American historian Robert Caro.

Robert Caro

Portrait of French political philosopher Montesquieu.

Montesquieu

(1689 - 1755)

Portrait of third president of the United States Thomas Jefferson.

Thomas Jefferson

(1743 - 1826)

Black and white photograph of English writer Virginia Woolf.

Virginia Woolf

(1882 - 1941)

Photograph of former Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev.

Nikita Khrushchev

(1894 - 1971)

Black and white photograph of African-American leader Malcolm X.

Malcolm X

(1925 - 1965)

Photograph of Egyptologist Kara Cooney.

Kara Cooney

Portrait of Alexis de Tocqueville wearing a black suit and standing in front of a chair.

Alexis de Tocqueville

(1805 - 1859)

Artist rendering of Hindu statesman and philosopher Kautilya.

Kautilya

(c. 350 BC - c. 300 BC)

Photograph of American author Daniel Alarcón.

Daniel Alarcón

Lewis Lapham at his desk

Lewis H. Lapham

English-born American poet W. H. Auden.

W.H. Auden

(1907 - 1973)

Photograph of U.S. Supreme Court justice Anthony Kennedy.

Anthony Kennedy

Portrait of English wit and poet John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester with monkey.

John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester

(1647 - 1680)

Former President of the United States Richard Nixon.

Richard Nixon

(1914 - 1994)

Photograph of American musician, songwriter, and writer Gil Scott-Heron.

Gil Scott-Heron

(1949 - 2011)

Depiction of Pennsylvania Senator William Maclay.

William Maclay

(1737 - 1804)

Painted portrait of English poet John Milton.

John Milton

(1608 - 1674)

Photograph of Survivor contestant Sue Hawk.

Sue Hawk

Photograph of Chinese nationalist leader Sun Yat-Sen.

Sun Yat-Sen

(1866 - 1925)

Miniature portrait of monk, musician, poet, and librarian Notker the Stammerer.

Notker the Stammerer

(c. 840 - 912)

Bust of Athenian statesman Solon.

Solon

(c. 630 BC - c. 560 BC)

Depiction of Greek philosopher Plato.

Plato

(c. 427 BC - c. 347 BC)

Photo of stone Aristotle statue face

Aristotle

(384 BC - 322 BC)

Black and white photograph of folksinger Phil Ochs.

Phil Ochs

(1940 - 1976)

Photograph of American politician and orator Stephen Douglas standing.

Stephen Douglas

(1813 - 1861)

Portrait of English-American writer and polemicist Thomas Paine.

Thomas Paine

(1737 - 1809)

Painted portrait of Native American leader Black Hawk.

Black Hawk

(1767 - 1838)

Classical bust of Thucydides.

Thucydides

(c. 460 BC - c. 404 BC)

Black and white photograph of American author Edith Wharton.

Edith Wharton

(1862 - 1937)

Classical engraving of Aristophanes with a long beard.

Aristophanes

(c. 446 BC - c. 386 BC)

Michael Phillips-Anderson

Quintus Tullius Cicero

(c. 102 BC - 43 BC)

Portrait of English Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley.

Percy Bysshe Shelley

(1792 - 1822)

Photograph of writer, poet, and professor George Garrett.

George Garrett

(1929 - 2008)

Depiction of Mughal dynasty founder Babur.

Babur

(1483 - 1530)

Photograph of American women's rights leader Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

(1815 - 1902)

Black and white photograph of American anarchist Emma Goldman.

Emma Goldman

(1869 - 1940)

Photograph of Vladimir Nabokov

Vladimir Nabokov

(1899 - 1977)

Painted portrait of former American first lady Abigail Adams.

Abigail Smith Adams

(1744 - 1818)

Photograph of German sociologist and political economist Max Weber.

Max Weber

(1864 - 1920)

Black and white photograph of Mencken looking over his shoulder at the camera

H.L. Mencken

(1880 - 1956)

Photograph of Chinese dissident and memoirist Nien Cheng.

Nien Cheng

(1915 - 2009)

Arrian

(c. 86 - c. 160)

Photograph of American journalist and Bolshevik sympathizer Louise Bryant.

Louise Bryant

(1885 - 1936)

Portrait bust of presumed author of the Iliad and the Odyssey Homer.

Homer

(c. 800 BC - 725 BC)

Black and white image of English novelist Anthony Trollope.

Anthony Trollope

(1815 - 1882)

Photograph of English novelist Charles Dickens.

Charles Dickens

(1812 - 1870)

Italian courtier, diplomat, and writer Baldassare Castiglione.

Baldassare Castiglione

(1478 - 1529)