Black and white photograph of African-American leader Malcolm X.

Malcolm X

(1925 - 1965)

Born in Nebraska in 1925, the civil rights leader was raised by various family members and foster parents in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Massachusetts. He converted to Islam while in prison in the 1940s and 1950s, becoming the National Representative of the Nation of Islam after his release. Having severed his ties with the organization in 1963, Malcolm X was assassinated by three of its members while delivering a speech in Harlem on February 21, 1965.

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Education is our passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs only to the people who prepare for it today.

—Malcolm X, 1964

History is a people’s memory, and without a memory man is demoted to the level of the lower animals.

—Malcolm X, 1964

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