Reverie, by Hubert Denis Etcheverry, c. 1930.  © RMN-Grand Palais/Art Resource, NY.


Volume VIII, Number 4 | fall 2015


Julius Caesar was criticized for his loosely belted toga. “Beware the badly belted boy,” said Sulla; Cicero sneered at Caesar’s habit of “trailing the fringe of the toga on the ground like an effeminate.” His political rival Cato the Younger made a point of wearing a short toga with no tunic underneath, as was considered masculine. But a decade later it was common for young Roman men to grow goatees, wear flowing togas, and use “loosely belted” as a catchphrase.

Fashion, n. A despot whom the wise ridicule and obey.

- Ambrose Bierce, 1911


U.S. secretary of agriculture Sonny Perdue meets with German minister of food and agriculture Christian Schmidt, 2017.


Equal Climates


U.S. Department of Agriculture bans words related to climate change.


Aristotle denies that the climate is changing.