The Destruction of Tyre, by John Martin, 1840. © Toledo Museum of Art, purchased with funds from the Libbey Endowment, gift of Edward Drummond Libbey.


Volume X, Number 3 | summer 2017


During the Middle Ages, wild animals were often believed to be devil-possessed. Wolves, moles, and caterpillars were tried in courts and executed. A story is told of Saint Dominic catching a sparrow, plucking it alive, and rejoicing in his triumph over the powers of darkness. By 1531 a legist argued that “rural pests would simply laugh” at civil-court censure but “have greater fear” of the Church’s power of anathema and should be excommunicated.

Who lives in fear will never be a free man.

—Horace, 19 BC


Girl with a Cat.


What Fads Go Up…


Internet resident pays $117,712 for a virtual kitty.

c. 1637:

Dutch resident (allegedly) trades twelve fat sheep for one sexy tulip root.