(1802 - 1885)
Victor Hugo published The Hunchback of Notre-Dame in 1831, was elected to the Constituent Assembly in 1848, and went into exile on the island of Guernsey after Napoleon III’s coup d’état in 1851. While Les Misérables, a historical novel set in Paris between 1815 and 1832, was a commercial success, it did not win universal admiration: Gustave Flaubert found in it “neither truth nor greatness…and the digressions! So many! So many!” Hugo was given a state funeral in 1885 and was interred at the Panthéon.