Mine Rescue, by Fletcher Martin, 1939. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, DC.


Volume VIII, Number 3 | summer 2015


Money Trails

Where the UN, the World Bank, and eleven nations send foreign aid



Maria Theresa, archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary and Bohemia, advised son Ferdinand in 1771 not to support the Mozart family of musicians. “You ask me about taking the young Salzburger into your service. I do not know why, believing you have no need for a composer or useless people,” she wrote. “Furthermore, he has a large family.” The Mozart family had four members. Ferdinand did not make an offer.

Without virtue, both riches and honor, to me, seem like the passing cloud.

—Confucius, c. 350 BC



Your Time Is Going to Come


Trump humiliates underlings with firings; the media reports metaphoric “stays of execution.”


c. 40:

Caligula condemns underlings to fight wild beasts after they fail to acknowledge his genius.


The World in Time

Richard White

Lewis H. Lapham talks with Richard White, author of The Republic for Which It Stands: The United States during Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, 1865–1896. More