Presentation drawing of “The Statue of Liberty Illuminating the World,” by Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, 1875. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Harry G. Sperling Fund, 2014.


Volume XIII, Number 4 | fall 2020


“The ancient Roman class struggle was only fought out within a privileged minority,” wrote Karl Marx in The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, “between the free rich and the free poor, while the great productive mass of the population, the slaves, formed a purely passive pedestal for the combatants. People forget J.C.L. Simonde de Sismondi’s significant expression: the Roman proletariat lived at the expense of society, while modern society lives at the expense of the proletariat.”

Democracy cannot be static. Whatever is static is dead.

—Eleanor Roosevelt, 1942



Escape Artists


Man steals money and runs from the law—after leaving behind a fake suicide note.


Nun grows tired of the convent and runs from the church—after leaving behind a dummy of herself.


The World in Time

Charles Foster

Lewis H. Lapham speaks with the author of Being a Human: Adventures in Forty Thousand Years of Consciousness. More