Pope John XXII

(1244 - 1334)

Born into a wealthy family, Jacques Duèze studied medicine and law in medieval France, where he became a chancellor in 1309 and a cardinal in 1312. Just four years later he was elected to the papacy, when he took the name John XXII. Rather than move to Rome, he maintained a primary residence in Avignon, where his relationship with the French royals was often strained. In 1326 he issued a papal bull threatening any Catholics who engaged in demon worship with automatic excommunication.

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