Pope John XXII
(1244 - 1334)
Born into a wealthy family, Jacques Duèze studied medicine and law in medieval France, where he became a chancellor in 1309 and a cardinal in 1312. Just four years later he was elected to the papacy, when he took the name John XXII. Rather than move to Rome, he maintained a primary residence in Avignon, where his relationship with the French royals was often strained. In 1326 he issued a papal bull threatening any Catholics who engaged in demon worship with automatic excommunication.