Black and white photograph of former director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation J. Edgar Hoover.

J. Edgar Hoover

(1895 - 1972)

During his forty-eight-year reign at the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover battled communism, kept secret files on Americans, and spied on Martin Luther King Jr. His career was summed up by the Church Committee as a “sophisticated vigilante operation aimed squarely at preventing the exercise of First Amendment rights.” 

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