(1905 - 1997)
As a student, the Austrian Victor Frankl corresponded with Sigmund Freud, who eventually asked the younger man for permission to publish a paper Frankl had shared with him. In 1942, Frankl, his wife, and his parents were sent to a series of concentration camps; only Frankl survived. His seminal work, Man’s Search for Meaning, was based in part on his observations of fellow prisoners. He dictated the book to an assistant in nine days; it has since been translated into twenty-six languages.