Charts & Graphs

Tricks of the Trade

Innovative ways of breaking the rules.


Foul Play: Videotaping hand signs of opposing team’s defensive coach

Practitioner: Bill Belichick, New England Patriots vs. New York Jets, 2007

Little League

Foul Play: Pitching at the age of fourteen (when the limit is twelve)

Practitioner: Danny Almonte of Bronx, NY, Little League World Series, 2001

Paralympic Basketball

Foul Play: Having ten players who are not in fact intellectually disabled play on the team

Practitioner: Spanish team, Paralympic Games, 2000

Figure Skating

Foul Play: Failing to keep your ex-husband from hiring someone to attack your competitor

Practitioner: Tonya Harding, U.S. Figure Skating Championships, 1994


Foul Play: Using a hand to score a goal

Practitioner: Diego Maradona, World Cup, 1986


Foul Play: Taking the subway

Practitioner: Rosie Ruiz, NYC Marathon, 1979

Épée Fencing (part of modern pentathlon)

Foul Play: Rigging foil to score hits without contact

Practitioner: Boris Onishchenko, Summer Olympics, 1976


Foul Play: Pitching a no-hitter on LSD

Practitioner: Dock Ellis, Pittsburgh Pirates vs. San Diego Padres, 1970