(1876 - 1938)

Of Yankton Sioux descent, Zitkala-Sa (née Gertrude Simmons) won a statewide oratory competition while attending Earlham College in the 1890s. She became a leader of the pan-Indian movement of the 1910s, ’20s, and ’30s, editing American Indian Magazine, lobbying for American Indian citizenship, and founding the National Council of American Indians.

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