Pope Paul IV
(1476 - 1559)
Born Gian Pietro Carafa, Pope Paul IV served as pope from 1555 until his death. As pope he pursued political, military, and religious policies and philosophies driven in large part by anti-Spanish sentiment. During his tenure, all books authored by Protestants were banned from the Holy Roman Empire. During his illness (and eventual death), crowds rioted, decapitating a statue of Carafa and liberating prisoners he had jailed.