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Notable expatriate communities.
According to ancient Greek sources, the seventh-century-bc pharaoh Psammetichus I rewarded Greek mercenaries with a parcel of land along the Nile that would become the first permanent colony of Greeks in Egypt.
After the Great Heathen Army swept England in the ninth century, enough Vikings stayed behind to become farmers that Alfred the Great signed a treaty in 886 legitimizing Viking control of roughly half of England.
Fleeing religious discrimination in France, Protestant Huguenot farmers arrived in the Western Cape in the seventeenth century. Known as le coin Français (the French corner), the region became the cradle of the South African wine industry.
After Stamford Raffles established his free-trade port in 1819, Chinese residents quickly came to outnumbered native Malays. More than three-quarters of Singapore residents today are of Chinese descent.
In 1820 the first group of formerly enslaved Americans departed for the U.S. colony of Liberia. The last group sent by the American Colonization Society arrived in 1904. According to a 2009 estimate, among Liberia’s population of 3.5 million, 150,000 are descendants of American slaves.
In 1863 the British and American expat enclaves in Shanghai merged to form the Shanghai International Settlement. Until 1928 no Chinese residents in the settlement were permitted to join the Shanghai Municipal Council. In 1943 the settlement was returned to the Chinese government.
7 Buenos Aires
From 1870 to 1960, around two million Italians emigrated to Argentina. By 1914 a fifth of Buenos Aires residents had been born in Italy. “There are more Italians than native Argentines in Buenos Aires,” wrote one turn-of-the-century American visitor.
In 1873 Peru became the first Latin American nation to establish diplomatic relations with Japan. Sixteen years later the first ship to carry Japanese families arrived in Lima from Yokohama. By 1940 a third of all foreign-born Peruvians were of Japanese descent.
Following increased Japanese
influence in Korea after the 1876 Japan–Korea Treaty, Korean students began moving to Japan. By 1930, more than 400,000 Koreans were living in Japan, many of whom were conscripted by Japan during World War II.
10 Los Angeles
After the Armenian Genocide of 1915–18, many Armenians migrated from the former Ottoman Empire to the United States, while another wave arrived after the fall of the Soviet Union. Nearly half moved to the Los Angeles area, notably Glendale and Hollywood.
11 Dearborn, MI
Syrian and Lebanese immigrants began arriving in Detroit after World War I; Iraqis came to the city after the Persian Gulf War. Dearborn now has the highest per capita Muslim population in the United States.
In 1961 the West German government signed a labor agreement with Turkey, inviting Turks to emigrate as Gastarbeiters (guest workers). By 1997 there were three million Turks living in Germany. Twenty percent of the population of Duisburg today is of Turkish descent.